XLI can be suspected based on clinical findings, although symptoms can take varying amounts of time to become evident, from a few hours after birth, up to a year in milder cases. The diagnosis is usually made by a dermatologist , who also typically formulates the treatment plan (see below). STS enzyme deficiency is confirmed using a clinically available biochemical assay. Carrier detection can be performed in mothers of affected sons using this test (see Genetics, below).  Molecular testing for DNA deletions or mutations is also offered, and can be particularly useful in the evaluation of individuals with associated medical conditions (see below). Prenatal diagnosis is possible using either biochemical or molecular tests. However, the use of prenatal diagnosis for genetic conditions that are considered to be generally benign raises serious ethical considerations and requires detailed genetic counseling.